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Delphi Course: Second lesson with databases... preparation for someting better

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In this lesson, you make an application to look up data.

You should learn how to...
--- Declare an array

You should learn about....
--- The form's OnCreate event
--- Global and local variables

Delphi language:
--- Arrays
--- Comments marked off with {} and (* *)

You may find typos and rough edges in this. None-the-less, the basic information should be accurate. If something seems wrong, or if you find I've assumed knowledge without explaining it in a previous lesson, please let me know. Please forgive matters of typos, etc. for now. I am not inherently sloppy! The blemishes will be dealt with later.




This lesson will produce a small program which lets you look up data from inside the computer. It will be similar to our earlier "database" program, but it will be able to give us "Spain" from "Madrid" or "Madrid" from "Spain". It will also use the OnChange event handler, just as it was used in the first converter application.

Start a new application. Put an edit box and a label on it. Rename form datab2f1. Save the unit as datab2u1.pas. Save the project as datab2.dpr

Make the edit box's OnChange handler...
procedure TForm1.Edit1Change(Sender: TObject);
begin
label1.caption:='- - - -';
if edit1.text='Madrid' then label1.caption:='Spain';
if edit1.text='Rome' then label1.caption:='Italy';
if edit1.text='Lima' then label1.caption:='Peru';
if edit1.text='Spain' then label1.caption:='Madrid';
if edit1.text='Italy' then label1.caption:='Rome';
if edit1.text='Peru' then label1.caption:='Lima';
end;
(This would make more sense if the program was for lookup of teacher's nick-names from their names, or vice versa, but it still will work just fine.)

You should now have a program which, rather crudely, lets you look up what country a given city is in, and will give you a major sity if you enter the name of a country.

Note that the application is case sensitive. This time we won't add the distraction of making it recognise words regardless of the letter case.


So far, so good.

We're now going to rewrite the application somewhat. A user will not be able to tell the difference. For the moment, the reason for the re-write will not be clear.

You already know something about variables. To date, you have only used local variables. Variables are a place where you can put things, and they will still be available later. In this lesson, we're going to make a very crude use of a special sort of variable called an array element. Besides meeting arrays, we're going to meet our first global variables. Global variables are, generally speaking A Bad Thing.... but everyone uses them. The trick is to use them in moderation. (We'll come back to "local" and "global" at the end of the lesson.)

Near the beginning of the program, you will find....
  public
    { Public declarations }
(The text between the curly brackets is a comment. You've already learned to make comments on the ends of lines with //. The curly brackets are another way to make some text a comment.) Just after that, add...
    sCountry,sCity: array [0..2] of string;
What you have added made the following available:
sCountry[0]
sCity[0]
sCountry[1]
sCity[1]
sCountry[2]
sCity[2]
Each is like a variable. You can put things in each. This will become more clear in a moment.

Somewhere on the form, not on the edit box, not on the label, and not on the title bar, double click. The following should come up..
procedure TData2f1.FormCreate(Sender: TObject);
begin
end;
Insert the following between the Begin and the End...
sCountry[0]:='Italy';
sCity[0]:='Rome';
sCountry[1]:='Spain';
sCity[1]:='Madrid';
sCountry[2]:='Peru';
sCity[2]:='Lima';
Don't be confused by the fact that the first array element is element "number zero". This is a little different from what you are used to, but it works fine, and there are reasons why computer people tend to count from zero.

Try running that much. Nothing new will be apparent, but you can fix any typos now, before new ones arise.

The OnCreate event occurs when the form is first created, in other words, as the application is started. You can put things that need to happen before the rest of the application starts working in the OnCreate event handler.

Now change the OnChange event handler for the edit box to....
procedure TData2f1.Edit1Change(Sender: TObject);
begin
label1.caption:='- - - - - -';
if edit1.text=sCountry[0] then label1.caption:=sCity[0];
if edit1.text=sCountry[1] then label1.caption:=sCity[1];
if edit1.text=sCountry[2] then label1.caption:=sCity[2];
if edit1.text=sCity[0] then label1.caption:=sCountry[0];
if edit1.text=sCity[1] then label1.caption:=sCountry[1];
if edit1.text=sCity[2] then label1.caption:=sCountry[2];
end;
... and run the application again. It should work as before.

Do you see what we've done? (Don't worry about why we've done it.) In a nutshell, we've make things a little less direct.

First, while the application is starting up, we fill two arrays, sCountry and sCity. In sCountry[0] and sCity[0], we have a country and a city of that country. In sCountry[1] and sCity[1], we have a different country and a city of that country.

During the event handler for the edit box, we look to see if what's in the edit box's text property matches what we have in any of the array elements. If we find a match, we report the paired data, e.g. if we find Italy, the contents of sCountry[0], we return Rome, the contents of sCity[0].

An immediate benefit is as follows:

Suppose we want to take Italy/Rome out of the "database", replacing it with Bejing/China. I trust you see how you would do that? (sCountry[0]:='China';sCity[0]:='Bejing';

At least that's all you have to do with this version of the program. Previously, the following would have been part of the edit box's OnChange....
if edit1.text='Rome' then label1.caption:='Italy';
if edit1.text='Italy' then label1.caption:='Rome';
If we were still using that version of the application, subsituting Bejing/China would have required two substitutions of "Bejing", two substitutions of "China". Not an earthshaking chore, admittedly, but any time you can make something more tidy, more elegant... do!

This program will be developed further in a later lesson. At that point the use of the arrays will be unavoidable.


Just before we finish, we are going to hark back to the difference between local and global variables. Change the edit box's OnChange event handler as follows:
procedure TData2f1.Edit1Change(Sender: TObject);
var sInput,sOutPut:string; // new 1
begin
sOutPut:='- - - - - -'; //modified 1
sInput:=edit1.text; // new 2
if sInput=sCountry[0] then sOutput:=sCity[0]; // modified 2
if sInput=sCountry[1] then sOutput:=sCity[1];
if sInput=sCountry[2] then sOutput:=sCity[2];
if sInput=sCity[0] then sOutput:=sCountry[0];
if sInput=sCity[1] then sOutput:=sCountry[1];
if sInput=sCity[2] then sOutput:=sCountry[2];
label1.caption:=sOutput; //new
end;
The application should still work as before, even though, yet again, why it works that way has changed, under the application's skin. (Get it working, if it isn't.)

sInput and sOutput are examples of local variables. You can only use them within the procedure Edit1Change, the edit box's OnChange event handler. Generally speaking, you try to make all of your variables local. They are local to Edit1Change because they were declared within Edit1Change. (The line starting "var" is where they were declared, where we told the compiler to provide variables of those names, of the given type.)

The elements of the arrays sCountry and sCity, on the other hand, are global variables. The arrays were declared just after the comment { Public declarations }. (Note no "var" is used in this context.) You can use, say sCity[2] anywhere in the program, because it is a global variable. We put 'Lima' into the array element during FormCreate, and we fetch 'Lima' from it during Edit1Change.


If you are ready for more advanced stuff about arrays, you might find what I wrote about a Sudoku solving application, in my Delphi Tutorials, which are separate from these, my Delphi Course lessons..


One last little detail....

Not only can things be made mere comments by enclosing them between curly brackets, as Delphi did with...
{ Public declarations }
... but if anything is enclosed between (* and *) the stuff so enclosed is also a comment. The enclosed material can extend over several lines. It is as well to put some notes at the start of the sourcecode. In the case of this program, my notes might be...
(*An example in support of Sheepdog Guides Delphi Lessons
  Version: 3 April 2005
  Started 2 April 2005.
  Derived from ideas noted down on trip to Costa Rica*)
The last is, of course, just for my fun... but it is fun to have a note of such things sometimes!




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