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Lazarus and Delphi Course: First Essay (Short!): Events and Multitasking

Page URL: EssEven.htm

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This is just one exercise in a series of Lazarus / Delphi exercises. You will probably be best served by doing them in sequence... each assumes some prior knowledge. Material © TK Boyd, sheepdogsoftware.co.uk, 4/05-6/20.

Heavily re-worked, June 2020, to bring it up to date for Windows 10/ Lazarus 2.0.0 Based on earlier Delphi page. Probably still useful to Delphi programmers, too.

Almost all of this course will be taught using lots of hands-on examples. Some things, however, just have to be dealt with the "boring" way. Eat your vegatables. Read the essays. Mother will be pleased. You will progress faster.

Pascal is the language behind the two IDEs, "Lazarus" and "Delphi". The IDSs are for writing programs to run under Windows and other modern operating systems. If you, like me, are fed up with the Windows monopoly abuse, and the direction Mr.Gates seems to be going, you may be considering making the move to Linux. If you do... or if you like the Mac... I am told that Lazarus also works just fine on both.

Even if you do go to Linux, you will find there, as in Windows, that you are working in a multitasking, event driven environment.

This is Good because you can do clever things relatively easily. This is Bad because you can do nothing as easily as you could do it back in the bad old, limited old, days of mono-tasked systems with no events.

In the old days, a computer would be doing almost nothing apart from what your application specified. This made getting things to work quite easy. It also meant you could only do one thing at a time.

The computer I'm working on at the moment is "doing" six obvious things, and many more under the surface. For example, even as I am typing this, there is an open connection to the internet. That is being guarded by a software firewall. In the lower right of the screen, a clock is displayed, telling me the time. Etc, etc.

I've just ben talking about multi-tasking. I haven't gone into much depth, but you don't need it yet.

More important to you just now is the concept and use of events.

In the applications we've done so far, we've used a button's OnClick event and an edit box's OnChange event.

Think back to the Inches to Centimeters converter application. You didn't write any code in that to say "Watch to see if the user is typing something into the edit box"... and yet, when the user did that, things happened. If you added a "Quit" button to the application, again: you didn't write any "See if the user has the mouse pointer over the quit button, has clicked the mouse" code. All of these things are taken care of for you by Windows (or Linux). The changing of the edit box contents, the clicking of the mouse on the virtual button generate "events". The events travel through the various things which are going on, and, if appropriate, the event handling code in your application is executed whenever the event arises. Pretty cool! A little strange, at first, but if you don't think about it too hard, you'll soon be using it with little difficulty.

If all that's clear, stop reading here.

I guess it wasn't clear?

If you come from the "old school", the following may help.

In the old days, we could write something like:
Initialise application
  Get first number
  Get second number
  Output the sum of the two numbers
  Get a key
Until the key was "Q"
Do any shut down things
In those days, the application and the computer would stop and wait patiently at places like "Get a key". In those days, with the program above, you had to give the computer the first number first. You had to supply the second number before you could quit.

A comparable application today would have two edit boxes (for "first number" and "second number". They could be entered in either order. There would be a label in which the sum of the numbers would appear. There would be a button to terminate the application. It could be clicked before any numbers had been entered.

It may help... or may confuse... to think of a Windows computer along the following lines....

Initialise computer, during power on
  If an application is requested, start it up
  See if event 1 has occured. If so, set flag
  See if event 2 has occured. If so, set flag
  See if event 3 has occured. If so, set flag
  See if event 4, 5, 6 etc... has occured. If so, set flag
  For each running application, see if they are interested in
     any of the flags which have been set by the
     various events. If so, the applications can change their
     states, as necessary
Until computer is told to shut itself down
Do any shut down things
It isn't really quite that simple... but that model will suffice for now!

A useful point arises even from such a crude model. A moment ago, I described a possible application, the one with two edit boxes. They would probably each have their own OnChange event handler. In other circumstances, it is useful (and allowed) to have several components all share one bit of code to handle some event.

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